- Acceptance criteria
The expected results or performance characteristics that define whether the test case passed or failed.
- Acceptance Testing / User Acceptance Testing
An acceptance test is a test that a user/sponsor and manufacturer/producer jointly perform on a finished, engineered product/system through black-box testing (i.e., the user or tester need not know anything about the internal workings of the system). It is often referred to as a(n) functional test, beta test, QA test, application test, confidence test, final test, or end user test
- Accessibility Testing
Verifying a product is accessible to the people having disabilities (deaf, blind, mentally disabled etc.).
- Ad-hoc Testing
Testing carried out using no recognised test case design technique. It is also known as Exploratory Testing
- Agile Testing
Testing practice for projects using agile methodologies, treating development as the customer of testing and emphasizing a test-first design paradigm
- Alpha Testing
In software development, testing is usually required before release to the general public. This phase of development is known as the alpha phase. Testing during this phase is known as alpha testing. In the first phase of alpha testing, developers test the software using white box techniques. Additional inspection is then performed using black box or grey box techniques.
- Arc Testing / Branch Testing
A test case design technique for a component in which test cases are designed to execute branch outcomes. A test method satisfying coverage criteria that require that for each decision point, each possible branch be executed at least once.
Application Under Test
- Authorization Testing
Involves testing the systems responsible for the initiation and maintenance of user sessions. This will require testing the Input validation of login fields ,Cookie security,and Lockout testing .This is performed to discover whether the login system can be forced into permitting unauthorised access. The testing will also reveal whether the system is susceptible to denial of service attacks using the same techniques.
- Back-to-back testing
Testing in which two or more variants of a component or system are executed with the same inputs, the outputs compared, and analyzed in cases of discrepancies
- Basis Path Testing
A white box test case design technique that uses the algorithmic flow of the program to design tests
- Benchmark Testing
Tests that use representative sets of programs and data designed to evaluate the performance of computer hardware and software in a given configuration
- Beta Testing / Field Testing
Once the alpha phase is complete, development enters the beta phase. Versions of the software, known as beta-versions, are released to a limited audience outside of the company to ensure that the product has few faults or bugs. Beta testing, is generally constrained to black box techniques although a core of test engineers are likely to continue with white box testing in parallel to the beta tests.
- Big Bang Testing
Integration testing where no incremental testing takes place prior to all the system's components being combined to form the system.
- Black Box Testing / Functional Testing
Black box testing, concrete box or functional testing is used to check that the outputs of a program, given certain inputs, conform to the functional specification of the program. It performs testing based on previously understood requirements (or understood functionality), without knowledge of how the code executes.
- Bottom-up Testing
An approach to integration testing where the lowest level components are tested first, then used to facilitate the testing of higher level components. The process is repeated until the component at the top of the hierarchy is tested.
- Boundary value analysis/ testing
A test case design technique for a component in which test cases are designed which include representatives of boundary values. A testing technique using input values at, just below, and just above, the defined limits of an input domain; and with input values causing outputs to be at, just below, and just above, the defined limits of an output domain.
- Breadth Testing
A test suite that exercises the full functionality of a product but does not test features in detail
Bugs arise from mistakes and errors, made by people, in either a program's source code or its design that prevents it from working correctly or produces an incorrect result
- Business process-based testing
An approach to testing in which test cases are designed based on descriptions and/or knowledge of business processes
Computer Aided Software Testing
- Code Coverage
An analysis method that determines which parts of the software have been executed (covered) by the test case suite and which parts have not been executed and therefore may require additional attention.
- Compatibility Testing
Testing whether the system is compatible with other systems with which it should communicate.
- Component Testing
The testing of individual software components.
- Concurrency Testing
Multi-user testing geared towards determining the effects of accessing the same application code, module or database records. Identifies and measures the level of locking, deadlocking and use of single-threaded code and locking semaphores
- Conformance Testing / Compliance Testing / Standards Testing
Conformance testing or type testing is testing to determine whether a system meets some specified standard. To aid in this, many test procedures and test setups have been developed, either by the standard's maintainers or external organizations, specifically for testing conformance to standards. Conformance testing is often performed by external organizations, sometimes the standards body itself, to give greater guarantees of compliance. Products tested in such a manner are then advertised as being certified by that external organization as complying with the standard
- Context Driven Testing
The context-driven school of software testing is flavor of Agile Testing that advocates continuous and creative evaluation of testing opportunities in light of the potential information revealed and the value of that information to the organization right now.
- Conversion Testing / Migration Testing
Testing of programs or procedures used to convert data from existing systems for use in replacement systems.
- Coverage Testing
Coverage testing is concerned with the degree to which test cases exercise or cover the logic (source code) of the software module or unit. It is also a measure of coverage of code lines, code branches and code branch combinations
- Cyclomatic Complexity
A measure of the logical complexity of an algorithm, used in white-box testing
- Data flow Testing
Testing in which test cases are designed based on variable usage within the code.
- Data integrity and Database integrity Testing
Data integrity and database integrity test techniques verify that data is being stored by the system in a manner where the data is not compromised by updating, restoration, or retrieval processing
- Data-Driven Testing
Testing in which the action of a test case is parameterized by externally defined data values, maintained as a file or spreadsheet. A common technique in Automated Testing
- Decision condition testing
A white box test design technique in which test cases are designed to execute condition outcomes and decision outcomes
- Decision table testing
A black box test design techniques in which test cases are designed to execute the combinations of inputs and/or stimuli (causes) shown in a decision table
- Decision testing
A white box test design technique in which test cases are designed to execute decision outcomes
An anomaly, or flaw, in a delivered work product. Examples include such things as omissions and imperfections found during early lifecycle phases and symptoms of faults contained in software sufficiently mature for test or operation. A defect can be any kind of issue you want tracked and resolved.
- Defect density
The number of defects identified in a component or system divided by the size of the component or system (expressed in standard measurement terms, e.g. lines-ofcode, number of classes or function points)
- Dependency Testing
Examines an application's requirements for pre-existing software, initial states and configuration in order to maintain proper functionality
- Depth Testing
A test that exercises a feature of a product in full detail.
- Design based Testing
Designing tests based on objectives derived from the architectural or detail design of the software (e.g., tests that execute specific invocation paths or probe the worst case behaviour of algorithms).
- Development testing
Formal or informal testing conducted during the implementation of a component or system, usually in the development environment by developers
- Documentation Testing
Testing concerned with the accuracy of documentation.
- Dynamic Testing
Testing software through executing it.
- Efficiency testing
The process of testing to determine the efficiency of a software product
- End-to-end Testing
Test activity aimed at proving the correct implementation of a required function at a level where the entire hardware/software chain involved in the execution of the function is available.
- Endurance Testing
Checks for memory leaks or other problems that may occur with prolonged execution
- Equivalence Class
A portion of a component's input or output domains for which the component's behaviour is assumed to be the same from the component's specification
- Equivalence partition Testing
A test case design technique for a component in which test cases are designed to execute representatives from equivalence classes.
- Equivalence Partitioning
A test case design technique for a component in which test cases are designed to execute representatives from equivalence classes
- Exhaustive Testing
Testing which covers all combinations of input values and preconditions for an element of the software under test
- Exploratory Testing
This technique for testing computer software does not require significant advanced planning and is tolerant of limited documentation for the target-of-test. Instead, the technique relies mainly on the skill and knowledge of the tester to guide the testing, and uses an active feedback loop to guide and calibrate the effort. It is also known as ad hoc testing
The inability of a system or component to perform its required functions within specified performance requirements. A failure is characterized by the observable symptoms of one or more defects that have a root cause in one or more faults.
An accidental condition that causes the failure of a component in the implementation model to perform its required behavior. A fault is the root cause of one or more defects identified by observing one or more failures.
- Fuzz Testing
Fuzz testing is a software testing technique. The basic idea is to attach the inputs of a program to a source of random data. If the program fails (for example, by crashing, or by failing built-in code assertions), then there are defects to correct.The great advantage of fuzz testing is that the test design is extremely simple, and free of preconceptions about system behavior.
- Gamma Testing
Gamma testing is a little-known informal phrase that refers derisively to the release of "buggy" (defect-ridden) products. It is not a term of art among testers, but rather an example of referential humor. Cynics have referred to all software releases as "gamma testing" since defects are found in almost all commercial, commodity and publicly available software eventually.
- Gorilla Testing
Testing one particular module,functionality heavily
- Grey Box Testing
The typical grey box tester is permitted to set up or manipulate the testing environment, like seeding a database, and can view the state of the product after their actions, like performing a SQL query on the database to be certain of the values of columns. It is used almost exclusively of client-server testers or others who use a database as a repository of information,or who has to manipulate XML files (DTD or an actual XML file) or configuration files directly, or who know the internal workings or algorithm of the software under test and can write tests specifically for the anticipated results.
- GUI Testing
GUI testing is the process of testing a graphical user interface to ensure it meets its written specifications
- Heuristic evaluations
Heuristic evaluations are one of the most informal method of usability inspection in the field of human-computer interaction. It helps identifying the usability problems in a user interface (UI) design. It specifically involves evaluators examining the interface and judging its compliance with recognized usability principles (the "heuristics").
- High Order Tests
Black-box tests conducted once the software has been integrated
- Incremental Testing
"Integration testing where system components are integrated into the system one at a time until the entire system is integrated.
- Installation Testing
Installation testing can simply be defined as any testing that occurs outside of the development environment. Such testing will frequently occur on the computer system the software product will eventually be installed on. While the ideal installation might simply appear to be to run a setup program, the generation of that setup program itself and its efficacy in a variety of machine and operating system environments can require extensive testing before it can be used with confidence
- Integration Testing
Integration testing is the phase of software testing in which individual software modules are combined and tested as a group. It follows unit testing and precedes system testing.
- Interface Testing
Testing conducted to evaluate whether systems or components pass data and control correctly to each other.
- Interoperability testing
The process of testing to determine the interoperability of a software product
- Invalid testing
Testing using input values that should be rejected by the component or system
- Isolation Testing
Component testing of individual components in isolation from surrounding components, with surrounding components being simulated by stubs
- Keyword driven Testing
A scripting technique that uses data files to contain not only test data and expected results, but also keywords related to the application being tested. The keywords are interpreted by special supporting scripts that are called by the control script for the test
- Load Testing
Load testing is the act of testing a system under load. It generally refers to the practice of modeling the expected usage of a software program by simulating multiple users accessing the program's services concurrently. This testing is most relevant for multi-user systems, often one built using a client/server model, such as web servers
- Localization Testing
This term refers to making software specifically designed for a specific locality
- Logic coverage Testing / Logic driven Testing / Structural test case design
Test case selection that is based on an analysis of the internal structure of the component. Also known as white-box testing
- Loop Testing
A white box testing technique that exercises program loops
- Maintainability Testing / Serviceability Testing
Testing whether the system meets its specified objectives for maintainability.
- Maintenance testing
Testing the changes to an operational system or the impact of a changed environment to an operational system
- Model Based Testing
Model-based testing refers to software testing where test cases are derived in whole or in part from a model that describes some (usually functional) aspects of the system under test.
- Monkey Testing
Testing a system or an Application on the fly, i.e just few tests here and there to ensure the system or an application does not crash out
- Mutation testing
A testing methodology in which two or more program mutations are executed using the same test cases to evaluate the ability of the test cases to detect differences in the mutations
- N+ Testing
A variation of Regression Testing. Testing conducted with multiple cycles in which errors found in test cycle N are resolved and the solution is retested in test cycle N+. The cycles are typically repeated until the solution reaches a steady state and there are no errors
- Negative Testing / Dirty Testing
Testing aimed at showing software does not work.
- Operational Testing
Testing conducted to evaluate a system or component in its operational environment.
- Pair testing
Two testers work together to find defects. Typically, they share one computer and trade control of it while testing
- Parallel Testing
The process of feeding test data into two systems, the modified system and an alternative system (possibly the original system) and comparing results.
- Path coverage
Metric applied to all path-testing strategies: in a hierarchy by path length, where length is measured by the number of graph links traversed by the path or path segment; e.g. coverage with respect to path segments two links long, three links long, etc. Unqualified, this term usually means coverage with respect to the set of entry/exit paths. Often used erroneously as synonym for statement coverage
- Path Testing
Testing in which all paths in the program source code are tested at least once.
- Penetration Testing
The portion of security testing in which the evaluators attempt to circumvent the security features of a system
- Performance Testing
Performance testing is testing that is performed to determine how fast some aspect of a system performs under a particular workload.Performance testing can serve different purposes. It can demonstrate that the system meets performance criteria. It can compare two systems to find which performs better. Or it can measure what parts of the system or workload cause the system to perform badly
A playtest is the process by which a game designer tests a new game for bugs and improvements before bringing it to market
- Portability Testing
Testing aimed at demonstrating the software can be ported to specified hardware or software platforms.
Cleanup steps after the test case is run, to bring it back to a known state.
Dependencies that are required for the test case to run
- Progressive Testing
Testing of new features after regression testing of previous features
- Quality Control
Quality control and quality engineering are involved in developing systems to ensure products or services are designed and produced to meet or exceed customer requirements and expectations
- Ramp Testing
Continuously raising an input signal until the system breaks down
- Random Testing
Testing a program or part of a program using test data that has been chosen at random
- Recovery Testing
Confirms that the program recovers from expected or unexpected events without loss of data or functionality. Events can include shortage of disk space, unexpected loss of communication, or power out conditions
- Regression Testing
Regression testing is any type of software testing which seeks to uncover bugs that occur whenever software functionality that previously worked as desired stops working or no longer works in the same way that was previously planned.
- Release Candidate
A pre-release version, which contains the desired functionality of the final version, but which needs to be tested for bugs
- Reliability Testing
Testing to determine whether the system/software meets the specified reliability requirements.
- Requirements based Testing
Designing tests based on objectives derived from requirements for the software component
- Resource utilization testing
The process of testing to determine the Resource-utilization of a software product
- Risk-based testing
Testing oriented towards exploring and providing information about product risks
- Sanity Testing
Brief test of major functional elements of a piece of software to determine if its basically operational
- Scalability Testing
Performance testing focused on ensuring the application under test gracefully handles increases in work load
- Scenario Testing
A scenario test is a test based on a hypothetical story used to help a person think through a complex problem or system. They can be as simple as a diagram for a testing environment or they could be a description written in prose.
- Security Testing
Tests focused on ensuring the target-of-test data (or systems) are accessible only to those actors for which they are intended.
- Session-based Testing
Session-based testing is ideal when formal requirements are non present, incomplete, or changing rapidly. It can be used to introduce measurement and control to an immature test process, and can form a foundation for significant improvements in productivity and error detection. It is more closely related to Exploratory testing. It is a controlled and improved ad-hoc testing that is able to use the knowledge gained as a basis for ongoing, product sustained improvement
A device, computer program or system used during testing, which behaves or operates like a given system when provided with a set of controlled inputs
- Smart testing
Tests that based on theory or experience are expected to have a high probability of detecting specified classes of bugs; tests aimed at specific bug types
- Smoke Testing
A sub-set of the black box test is the smoke test. A smoke test is a cursory examination of all of the basic components of a software system to ensure that they work. Typically, smoke testing is conducted immediately after a software build is made. The term comes from electrical engineering, where in order to test electronic equipment, power is applied and the tester ensures that the product does not spark or smoke.
- Soak Testing
Running a system at high load for a prolonged period of time. For example, running several times more transactions in an entire day (or night) than would be expected in a busy day, to identify and performance problems that appear after a large number of transactions have been executed
- Soap-opera testing
A technique for defining test scenarios by reasoning about dramatic and exaggerated usage scenarios. When defined in collaboration with experienced users, soap operas help to test many functional aspects of a system quickly and-because they are not related directly to either the systems formal specifications, or to the systems features-they have a high rate of success in revealing important yet often unanticipated problems.
- Software Quality Assurance
Software testing is a process used to identify the correctness, completeness and quality of developed computer software. Actually, testing can never establish the correctness of computer software, as this can only be done by formal verification (and only when there is no mistake in the formal verification process). It can only find defects, not prove that there are none.
- Stability Testing
Stability testing is an attempt to determine if an application will crash.
- State Transition Testing
A test case design technique in which test cases are designed to execute state transitions.
- Statement Testing
Testing designed to execute each statement of a computer program.
- Static Testing
Analysis of a program carried out without executing the program
- Statistical Testing
A test case design technique in which a model is used of the statistical distribution of the input to construct representative test cases.
- Storage Testing
Testing whether the system meets its specified storage objectives.
- Stress Testing
Stress testing is a form of testing that is used to determine the stability of a given system or entity. It involves testing beyond normal operational capacity, often to a breaking point, in order to observe the results.Stress testing a subset of load testing.
- Structural Testing
White box testing, glass box testing or structural testing is used to check that the outputs of a program, given certain inputs, conform to the structural specification of the program
System Under Test
- Syntax Testing
A test case design technique for a component or system in which test case design is based upon the syntax of the input.
- System Testing
System testing is testing conducted on a complete, integrated system to evaluate the system's compliance with its specified requirements. System testing falls within the scope of Black box testing
- Technical Requirements Testing
Testing of those requirements that do not relate to functionality. i.e. performance, usability, etc.
- Test Approach
The implementation of the test strategy for a specific project. It typically includes the decisions made that follow based on the (test) project's goal and the risk assessment carried out, starting points regarding the test process, the test design techniques to be applied, exit criteria and test types to be performed
- Test Automation
Test automation is the use of software to control the execution of tests, the comparison of actual outcomes to predicted outcomes, the setting up of test preconditions, and other test control and test reporting functions.
- Test Bed
An execution environment configured for testing. May consist of specific hardware, OS, network topology, configuration of the product under test, other application or system software, etc. Same as Test environment
- Test Case
The specification (usually formal) of a set of test inputs, execution conditions, and expected results, identified for the purpose of making an evaluation of some particular aspect of a Target Test Item.
- Test Cycle
A formal test cycle consists of all tests performed. In software development, it can consist of, for example, the following tests: unit/component testing, integration testing, system testing, user acceptance testing and the code inspection.
- Test Data
The definition (usually formal) of a collection of test input values that are consumed during the execution of a test, and expected results referenced for comparative purposes
- Test Driven Development
Test-driven development (TDD) is a Computer programming technique that involves writing tests first and then implementing the code to make them pass. The goal of test-driven development is to achieve rapid feedback and implements the "illustrate the main line" approach to constructing a program. This technique is heavily emphasized in Extreme Programming.
- Test Driver
A program or test tool used to execute a tests. Also known as a Test Harness
- Test Environment
The hardware and software environment in which tests will be run, and any other software with which the software under test interacts when under test including stubs and test drivers.
- Test Harness
In software testing, a test harness is a collection of software tools and test data configured to test a program unit by running it under varying conditions and monitor its behavior and outputs.
- Test Idea
A brief statement identifying a test that is potentially useful to conduct. The test idea typically represents an aspect of a given test: an input, an execution condition or an expected result, but often only addresses a single aspect of a test.
- Test Log
A collection of raw output captured during a unique execution of one or more tests, usually representing the output resulting from the execution of a Test Suite for a single test cycle run.
- Test Plan
A document describing the scope, approach, resources, and schedule of intended testing activities. It identifies test items, the features to be tested, the testing tasks, who will do each task, and any risks requiring contingency planning.
- Test Procedure
The procedural aspect of a given test, usually a set of detailed instructions for the setup and step-by-step execution of one or more given test cases. The test procedure is captured in both test scenarios and test scripts
- Test Report
A document that summarizes the outcome of testing in terms of items tested, summary of results , effectiveness of testing and lessons learned.
- Test Scenario
A sequence of actions (execution conditions) that identifies behaviors of interest in the context of test execution.
- Test Script
A collection of step-by-step instructions that realize a test, enabling its execution. Test scripts may take the form of either documented textual instructions that are executed manually or computer readable instructions that enable automated test execution.
- Test Specification
A document specifying the test approach for a software feature or combination or features and the inputs, predicted results and execution conditions for the associated tests
- Test Strategy
Defines the strategic plan for how the test effort will be conducted against one or more aspects of the target system.
- Test Suite
A package-like artifact used to group collections of test scripts , both to sequence the execution of the tests and to provide a useful and related set of Test Log information from which Test Results can be determined
- Test Tools
Computer programs used in the testing of a system, a component of the system, or its documentation
The degree to which a system or component facilitates the establishment of test criteria and the performance of tests to determine whether those criteria have been met
- Thread Testing
A variation of top-down testing where the progressive integration of components follows the implementation of subsets of the requirements, as opposed to the integration of components by successively lower levels
- Top-down testing
An incremental approach to integration testing where the component at the top of the component hierarchy is tested first, with lower level components being simulated by stubs. Tested components are then used to test lower level components. The process is repeated until the lowest level components have been tested
- Traceability Matrix
A document showing the relationship between Test Requirements and Test Cases
- Unit Testing
A unit test is a procedure used to verify that a particular module of source code is working properly
- Usability Testing
Usability testing is a means for measuring how well people can use some human-made object (such as a web page, a computer interface, a document, or a device) for its intended purpose, i.e. usability testing measures the usability of the object. If usability testing uncovers difficulties, such as people having difficulty understanding instructions, manipulating parts, or interpreting feedback, then developers should improve the design and test it again
- Use case testing
A black box test design technique in which test cases are designed to execute user scenarios
The word validation has several related meanings:* In general, validation is the process of checking if something satisfies a certain criterion. Examples would be: checking if a statement is true, if an appliance works as intended, if a computer system is secure, or if computer data is compliant with an open standard. This should not be confused with verification.
In the context of hardware and software systems,formal verification is the act ofproving or disproving the correctness of a systemwith respect to a certain formal specification or property,using formal methods.
- Volume Testing
Testing which confirms that any values that may become large over time (such as accumulated counts, logs, and data files), can be accommodated by the program and will not cause the program to stop working or degrade its operation in any manner
- White Box testing / Glass box Testing
White box testing, glass box testing or structural testing is used to check that the outputs of a program, given certain inputs, conform to the structural specification of the program. It uses information about the structure of the program to check that it performs correctly.
- Workflow Testing
Scripted end-to-end testing which duplicates specific workflows which are expected to be utilized by the end-user
Astra Infotech Private Limited, the software engineering company, believes, practices and evangelizes the practice of the software engineering principles. These principles are encapsulated in the best practices, aligning with industry standards inclu